Wednesday, November 28, 2007

A Glimpse of History - The Rise of the Modern World

The theory of the “divine right” of kings was not practiced by the rulers of the Middle Ages. The right of rebellion, occasional election, the grant of town charters, and the parliament limited the powers of the monarchs during this age.

The checks on the power of the medieval monarchs did not, however, work toward the development of democracy. Instead, autocracy developed in Europe during the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries. The rise of autocracy was due to the presence of able and ambitious monarchs, the change in the methods of warfare, the political ideas of writers, the influence of national patriotism, the influence of the Reformation, and the economic, social, and political changes brought about by the growth of commerce and trade.

The people of England fought hard to obtain protection for their rights. The English revolution – the Puritan Revolution and the Glorious Revolution – were the causes of the rise of many institutions, which we have inherited, from the English. One of these is the representative from the government.

The civilization that arose in Western Europe spread to the various European countries through the reforms introduced by the “enlightened despots” who considered it their duty to promote the progress and welfare of their people.

The introduction of new ways of living with others, and new ways of thinking during the early modern period greatly enhanced the progress of mankind


A Glimpse of History – The Expansion of Europe Beyond the Seas

European expansion was brought about by the interplay of many causes, such as Renaissance, love for adventure, commerce, desire to spread religion, and desire for wealth and power.

The knowledge of men and the world was increased through the help of many important inventions and discoveries.

The early contact of Europe with the East was indirect. Later, trade routes were established. Trade routes were important factors in the establishments of the trade relations between the West and the East. The capture of Constatinople by the Turks in 1453 forced the search for another trade route to the East.

Portugal took leadership in geographical discoveries and explorations. Other nations followed suit. Rivalries in trade and in the acquisition of colonies ensued. Rivalries were in turn followed by wars.

The discoveries and explorations led to European expansion. The effects of the discoveries and explorations were important not only in Europe but also for the world. This also brought about the increase in wealth and luxuries, growth in commerce and trade, rise of the middle class and contact of the civilization of Europe and the other regions of the world


Tuesday, November 27, 2007

A Glimpse of History – The Way Toward the Modern World

The Christian Church played an important role in the life of man of the Middle Ages. The monasteries helped make the life of the people easier and richer, and were almost wholly responsible in preserving knowledge and literature.

The Barbarians would have destroyed the culture of Europe had not the Roman Empire in the East and the Church taken effective measures to preserve it.

The power and influence of the Church declined on account of the rise of rival religions, the conflict between the Pope and the princes, and the Great Schism.

The Christian Church launched the Crusades in order to recover the Holy Land from the Turks. Although the Crusades failed to accomplish this original purpose, they brought about the contact between the East and the West. And this contact promoted both the cultural and material progress of the world.

A new system of social organization known as feudalism developed in the Middle Ages. This system was based on land tenure. Feudalism caused important changes in the social life of the world.

The rise of nation-states was due to the development of a common feeling, natural development of one common national language, and the feeling of kinship.

New interest in learning was revived. Italy took the leadership in the Renaissance. The Renaissance changed the attitude of the people towards life.

Middle Ages laid the foundation of the modern world.

Without the contributions of the Middle Ages the modern world would have been possible.


Monday, November 19, 2007

A Glimpse of History - Rome’s Influence in the Advancement of the Human Race

What brought about the rise of the Roman republic? Two important factors made Rome the greatest power and a seat of a great civilization: her geographical position, and the character of her people. Rome’s position made it easy for her to spread her dominion along the Mediterranean Sea. In the north she was protected from the barbarous tribe by the Alps. The Mediterranean Sea separated her from her civilized rivals. And the character of her people enables her to make most of his strategic position.

The ancient Romans were a disciplined and orderly people. Unlike the Greeks, they could compose their own practical advantage. Just as the Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks had their respective civilization so had the Romans also developed their own. As a result of her wars with the Greeks, Rome gained control of the cities Magna Grecia, and then extended her powers and influence over the Mediterranean world. Her doors were thus opened to receive the culture of this part. Later, as a result of her victory over the Carthaginians, Rome became the mistress of the Mediterranean and the builder of the great Roman Empire.

Rome’s position enabled her to absorb and spread the culture of the ancient people, and thus fulfilled the mission of preserving and enriching ancient cultures that she handed down to the Western World. But Rome’s greatest service to civilization was the triumph of the Christianity over paganism. This victory greatly altered the moral standards of society. Although Rome did not make original contributions to the world, she made valuable efforts in preserving the culture and civilizations of the Greeks and the Oriental people.

The history of the Roman republic is characterized by the struggle between plebeians and patricians, the rivalry among military leaders, and the struggle for mastery of the Mediterranean world. The republic enlarged into an empire. The Roman Empire lasted for almost five hundred years. Ina bout 395 A.D. it declined for various reasons.


Friday, November 16, 2007

A Glimpse of History - Greek Rich Civilization

The wonderful development of the many-sided genius of the Greeks was due mainly to the geography of the country and the character of the people. The people were self-reliant; adventurous, fearless, but moderate and freedom-loving. They were lovers of beauty and truth. That love of beauty found expression in art, poetry, music, and philosophy.
Greek civilization developed in small communities, like the independent city-states of Athens and Sparta. These two cities developed two different types of civilization. Sparta emphasized military service to the state, while Athens experimented on different forms of government to promote the welfare of the individual, thus becoming the leading democratic city-state. This ideological difference between Sparta and Athens brought about rivalry and war.
Athens emerged as a famous city. Two great powers, however, threatened her independence – Persia and Carthage, which waged several wars to destroy her civilization. The wars, costly and useless, dragged on through a long period. Athens, however, emerged victorious and preserved her civilization for the world.
Athens victory over Persia saved the Greek civilization which Alexander the Great spread throughout the length and breadth of the eastern empire he built centering Alexandria in Egypt.
Greece enriched life through her contributions. She improved upon the ways of living, which she inherited from our ancestors. Greek life found expression in songs, art, literature, science, lofty thoughts or philosophy and history, these accomplishments illumined or enlightened the world.


Tuesday, November 13, 2007

A Glimpse of History – Early Civilization

The study of history is useful to us because it gives us knowledge of the past, helps us understand the present, and enables us to foresee the future. The study of history makes us appreciate the failures and success of man as he builds the civilization of the world, and it develops in us certain ideals, habits, and attitudes, which makes us understand men and events for our personal well beings as well as for the greatest good of the greatest number.

Our knowledge of history is derived from oral traditions, relics, and written records.

The progress of man passed through different stages, from the lowest stage of savagery and barbarism to civilization. These stages of development are reflected by, and named after, the tools, which he has used. Thus, these stages are named the Old Stone Age, New Stone Age, and the Age of Metals.

The progress made by man as slow and irregular. Man’s progress shows how he has steadily gained control of the gifts and forces of nature.

Culture is the result of man’s efforts to satisfy his wishes, needs, and desires. Culture grows through inventions. It mat be spread through contact with others, colonization, travel, adventure, and conquest.

Man is superior to animals because of his special mental powers. He has certain advantages over other creatures.

Man has laid the foundation of civilization in politics, economics, religions, education, philosophy, and art.

The peoples of the Ancient East improved their ways of living and built great civilizations. The peoples that built these civilizations were the Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Assyrians, the Phoenicians, the Hebrews, the Persians, the Hindus, the Japanese, and the Chinese.

We owe the peoples of the ancient East and the Far East the beginnings and rudiments of our civilization. We ought to remember the development of nations, development of governments, development of religion, development of literature, development of arts, development of sciences, development of communication, development of economic life, and the development of education.

The culture and civilization of the peoples of the ancient East and Far East were spread through conquests and commerce.


Monday, November 12, 2007

A Glimpse of the Past - Introduction

For this month I am going to journey the past of man’s living. Starting from early civilization until the present.

I know the most of us are still students and still studying the most boring subject, HISTORY. Why is there need for study of man’s progress in the past as well as in the present? The history of the past is nothing than the story of man’s struggle for existence. We need to know how our forebears lived in the past and what they did to improve their living conditions. That struggle for existence is continuous to the present. And if it is interesting to know how man lived in the past, it is equally so today; for, knowing how progress has been attained through struggle, we would be able to appreciate the problem that man faces today.

History is just a record of what has done and what man is striving to do today. Man is a social being, and, as such, he lives in association with others in a social group. And history tells us how different human associations rose and fell, together with the causes of their rise and fall.

We know very little of the early human society and how it built its civilization, because of the scanty records left from the past. We learn of the early man only through traditions, relics, and writings handed down to us from the past. Stories transmitted to us by word of mouth; relics in the form of tool, weapons, and utensils, and written records consisting of edicts issued by rulers, treaties, laws, tablets, books, and documents – all these constitutes the bases of our knowledge of the men of the past.

We find that man has passed through different stages of development. The earliest and simplest stage resembled that form of life not much higher than that of the beasts. The earliest man depended on nature for both his food and shelter. Man depended on wild animals and plants for his food. He roamed the fields and forest far and wide for his living, and took refuge in caves for his shelter.

This is just a start of our journey.


Monday, November 5, 2007

A pardon of relief??

October 26, 2007, Friday, exactly 3:39 p.m., Former President Joseph Estrada has accepted the pardon given directly by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. This sudden occurence had brought shockwaves throughout the archipelago of the seven thousand islands of the Philippines. This is not what we have expected. This is too abrupting for all filipinos wether pro-administration or pro-opposition. Kahit aku eh napanganga ng nalaman ku ang balitang ito. At even hanggang ngayon na more than a week na, halos lahat ng tao sa pilipinas ay pinaguusapan ang isyung ito. Kaso naman kasi nakakashock naman talaga.

According sa mga news, kaya binigyan ni PGMA si Estrada ng executive clemency kasi raw ay para makasama na ni Estrada ang kanayang ina. At hindi daw dapat ito lagyan ng kahit anu mang malisya ang kanyang ibinigay na pardon. At naniwala naman kayo? Eh look at it clearly and deeply! Haven't you notice? It is so obvious na after naging guilty si Erap ay binigyan agad ni PGMA ng pardon si Erap. Nakakapagtaka diba. Kaya niya ito pinatawan ng executive clemency si Estrada ay para linisin ang kanyang pangalan at para maibalik sa kanya ang magandang pagtingin ng taong-masa. But this doesn't mean na kumakampi aku kay Erap ha. Naniniwala din kasi aku na may kasalanan din si Erap na dapat niyang pagbayaran.
Ang mga tangang taong masa naman ay nagsisiyahan sa nangyari. Hindi nila naisip kung anu ang mga magyayari after sa pardon. Ipinagmalaki pa ni Erap si PGMA sa kanyang speech sa lungsod ng San Juan.
Maling - mali ang ginawa ni PGMA. This have stolen the Filipino’s sense of pride and trust that the legal system works. Eh kailangan na din bigyan pala ang mga lesser thieves ng EXECUTIVE CLEMENCY. As Fidel V. Ramos said:
"…All Filipinos are stakeholders in this case,.."
FVR is truthfully right. Nang dahil sa pangyayaring ito, dadami ang kurakot sa ating Inang Bayan. Parang sinabi ni PGMA na : "Hala.. It is for all of you. It's all for free. Just steal and steal and steal, and i will pardon you. No need to worry. I am the law.."
But just recently, Erap have proclaimed that he will support the impeachment movement against PGMA. According kay Erap, kailangan daw malaman ng taumbayan ang katotohanan about the controversies surrounding the Arroyo administration.

"Yes I will support the impeachment complaint. Of course it is important that there should be closure to all the issues surrounding the administration like the 'Hello Garci,' the fertilizer scam. It is important that the taxpayers be informed where the money they pay the government goes," Estrada said.

Pare-pareho lang kayo. Puro kurakot at kurapsiyon. San na ba ang ang pag - asa?

Sinu ba ang tama? Sinu ba ang mali?

Tama ba ang pagbigay ng pardon kay Erap?

Makakatulong ba sa sambayanan ang pagkakapardon ni Erap?

...o makakasama lang ito?

Photo Courtesy to: Stress Management Tips

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